Third Party Research

Comprehensive reviews of multiple studies and databases conducted over nearly 20 years of research involving neonicotinoids and pollinators have been published by a diverse group of researchers. Below are several resources you can reference and review to learn more about honey bee health.

  • Managed Pollinator CAP Project Report, University of Georgia
    • A 17-member consortium of university and federal bee labs, observed that “Bee mortality is negatively impacted as the percentage land use in agriculture increases, but this is not associated with any identifiable trend in pesticide use” and noted that although dust from seed treatments in corn can pose a threat to insect pollinators, older chemicals “pose a 3-fold greater hazard to the colony than neonicotinoids.”
  • Dietary Traces of Neonicotinoid Pesticides
    • Using the well-established Hill’s epidemiology ‘causal criteria,’ Cresswell et al. (2012) reviewed dietary exposure in nectar and pollen and concluded “dietary neonicotinoids cannot be implicated in honey bee declines.”
  • An assessment of key evidence about neonicotinoids and bees
    • Evaluating the relevant information on neonicotinoid uses in the United Kingdom, the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) concluded from the accumulated evidence across several independent studies that it “supports the view that the risk to bee populations from neonicotinoids, as they are currently used, is low.”
  • Pathogens, Pests, and Economics: Drivers of Honey Bee Colony Declines and Losses
    • A report from the EcoHealth Alliance (2014) examined the drivers of honey bee colony decline and annual losses. Regarding neonicotinoids, this report concluded “scientific studies examining the overall impact of neonicotinoid pesticides on managed honey bee colony loss are yet to demonstrate colony level losses in field settings at field doses.”
  • Overview Report – Neonicotinoids and the Health of Honey Bees in Australia
    • In its recent 92-page report, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority examined the impact of that country’s extensive use of neonicotinoids, concluding “the introduction of the neonicotinoids has led to an overall reduction in the risks to the agricultural environment from the application of insecticides” and that “Australian honeybee populations are not in decline, despite the increased use of this group of insecticides in agriculture and horticulture since the mid-1990s.”
  • Risks of neonicotinoid insecticides to honeybees
    • A review by Fairbrother et al. (2014), criticized the overreliance of laboratory studies in evaluating risk, noting “Assessing risks only under worst-case conditions with individual honeybees, divorced from properties provided by colony interactions, serves only to understand potential mechanisms of action of different chemicals but not their actual risks.” When considering the extensive body of existing research, the authors concluded “it is not reasonable, therefore, to conclude that crop-applied pesticides in general, or neonicotinoids in particular, are a major risk factor for honeybee colonies.”